Discussion on UNFCCC Decision on Gender Balance

REPORT ON THE ROUNDTABLE FORUM-DISCUSSION ON UNFCCC DECISION ON GENDER BALANCE:
VIEWS AND OPTIONS TO ADVANCE THE DECISION 23/CP18MADE AT DOHA IN 2012.
PANAFRIC HOTEL
25TH JULY, 2013.

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Climate change affects women & men in all settings, but women are more vulnerable. Those (women &men) in rural areas are more vulnerable because of their high dependency on local natural resources for their livelihood. The most vulnerable are women because of their roles and responsibilities; and their lack of access to resources to help them cope with climate impacts (decision-making, credit, training/skills).Women also constitute the majority of the world’s poorest. Cultural factors also make women more vulnerable – the norms and practices.

In COP18 in Doha, one of the milestone decisions in the UNFCCC process was made. This was decision 23/CP.18; ushering in purposeful gender balance efforts in the UNFCCC.

The Institute of Environment and Water Management, IEWM, in collaboration with the Climate Change Network of Kenya, CCNKenya, the FEMNET and the Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, PACJA, organized a round table meeting to collect views and options for advancing the gender balance decision and make submission to the UNFCCC secretariat and come up with recommendations for gender equity and balance at the national and county levels.

The Institute of Environment and water Management, IEWM, Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, PACJA, The Climate Change Network of Kenya, CCNKenya and FEMNET convened and coordinated the meeting and invited other core actors including the Climate Change Secretariat, UNEP, Norwegian Church Aid, the National Gender Commission, NEMA and other key stakeholders.

The objectives of the meeting were:

i. To collect views and options for advancing the gender balance decision and make submission to the UNFCCC secretariat through various channels;

ii. To get updates on the UNFCCC process

iii. To get a synopsis of trends and progress in gender mainstreaming in climate change; and

iv. To make recommendations on how Kenya can comply /implement the decision on gender balance.

A total of 35 stakeholders from the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural resources, UNEP, NCA, NEMA, CCNKenya, PACJA, National Gender Commission, Media and researchers.

The key recommendations from the meeting were that:

1) Strategies for Climate Change interventions, at all levels, must take cognizance of the different impacts of climate change on men and women. The fact that women are impacted more severely than men by climate change needs to be acknowledged in all planning and during implementation of climate response initiatives at all levels.

2) Adopting an affirmative action (either 50/50 or whatever the parties may agree but should be increased progressively to 50% if the initial target is less) that will be applied while appointing facilitators and chairs of formal and informal negotiating committee and other working groups and leadership of various bodies.

3) Ensure that women representatives should be participating effectively in the delegation as well as lead negotiators to include gender experts so that they are able to contribute effectively to the advancement of gender issues and gender representation.

4) There needs to be gender sensitive budgeting at county and national levels in Kenya.

5) There need to be Domestication of the genders discussions and strategies, as gender issues are region specific.

6) Notwithstanding that gender is about men and women, there need to be a targeted effort to build the capacity of women to be effective in the UNFCCC processes. This will include the purposeful mobilization and sensitization of women on climate change at all levels.

7) Women must have full voting rights in the various bodies, at national level (e.g. in Kenyan senate). 8) There was need to come up with a gender specific website to enhance communication and information sharing in Kenya.

It was agreed that:

i. Share the report and the recommendations from the African meeting (organized by COMESA in Addis Ababa), on the Africa Gender recommendations to UNFCCC.

ii. There will be a meeting with the MEWNR, to formerly present the Kenyan CSOs recommendations,

iii. The report of the discussion proceedings was to be shared.

iv. Connect with the process that was initiated to input to the African CSOs position (Addis Ababa recommendations) on gender balance for the UNFCCC.

v. To closely work with the line Ministry and the commission to ensure sustained gender considerations at all levels in Kenya.

2.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) took place on 26 November to 7 December 2012 at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha, Qatar. One of the outcomes of the COP 18 was a gender decision on gender balance titled “Promoting gender balance and improving the participation of women in UNFCCC negotiations and in the representation of Parties in bodies established pursuant to the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol’ was reached and a draft document produced, with recommendations for adoption by the Conference of Parties at its eighteenth session. This was seen as a critical step on a path towards gender equality in the climate regime.

The Gender Decision of COP 18 has created an opportunity to strengthen women’s participation in climate change. The COP18 Gender Decisions aims for:

• Climate policy to address needs of men & women equally;

• Gender to be a standing item on the UNFCCC COP agenda;

• In-session Gender workshop at COP19;

• Review & report mechanisms to track progress towards a gender balance;

• Governments to share gender submissions September 2, 2013;

Recognizing there is so much more that needs to be done towards integrating gender in the climate change regime, the UNFCCC has provided until September 2 2013, for inputs to the gender decision as stated in Paragraph 11 of the gender decision: ‘Also requests Parties and observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 2 September 2013, their views on options and ways to advance the goal referred to in paragraph 2, of the gender decision document’.

Therefore there was need for stakeholders in Kenya to convene and discuss their recommendations ahead of the 2nd September, 2013 deadline.

3.0 WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

3.1 Preliminaries

Rachel from FEMNET gave a brief overview about the purpose of the meeting: to convene key gender stakeholders in a roundtable for a conversation on how the gender decision made at COP18 could be advanced; hence input to the UNFCCC pursuant to their request. She observed that:

i. Women are at the Centre of energy poverty;

ii. Women who are disabled will be even more vulnerable;

iii. Grassroots issues on gender are important as we involve women in finding solutions;

iv. Women are the focal point to climate adaptation;

v. It is important to have national and international frameworks for gender equity and balanced participation of men and women.

Rachel from FEMNET sharing the purpose of the workshop with participants

Brenda Micheni briefed the meeting about the objectives of the roundtable meeting:

i. The main objective is to collect views and options for advancing the gender balance decision and make submission to the UNFCCC secretariat through various channels;

ii. To update stakeholders on the UNFCCC process;

iii. To get a synopsis of trends and progress in gender mainstreaming in climate change and

iv. To come up with recommendations on how Kenya can comply/implement the decision on gender balance.

3.2 Previous efforts and status of Gender efforts:

Presentation by Annabel Waititu; CEO, Institute of Environment and Water Management.

AnnabelWaititu gave an overview on the facts about the differentiated impacts of Climate Change onWomen, due to their various roles in society.

She asked participants to highlight any gender related decisions by COPs.

The participants highlighted the following:

? On underrepresentation of women in UNFCCC

? ON need to capacity build women.

? There were several frameworks on gender participation

? Grassroots work needed engendering in the climate change initiatives.

Annabel’s presentation discussed the background facts on gender and climate change. The women were more vulnerable due to climate change; e.g Women take more time looking for food and water during drought.

There were international instruments to ensure that women are not marginalized.

UNFCCC did not make any mention on women and gender perspectives in climate change; until in COP11 when women started organizing conventions towards gender equity.

In COP18, under decision 23/CP18; which pushed for gender balance; and inclusive participation of women in UNFCCC processes, we moved closer to remarkably improving women participation and striving for Gender balance and women participation in country delegations.

She noted that the goals of decision 23/CP18 included:

i. Improving the participation of women in the bodies of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and Striving for a gender balance in UNFCCC bodies

ii. Striving for gender balance in country delegations and

iii. Conducting a workshop on gender balance and gender-sensitive climate policy and capacity building at the next COP in Warsaw at the end of 2013.

The Chairs of such bodies to be guided by the goal of gender balance when setting up informal negotiating groups and consultation mechanisms.

She further noted that the milestones towards achieving the gender decision included:

i. September 2, 2013 – Deadline for submissions from Parties and Observers

ii. November 12 or November 13 – COP19 Gender Workshop

iii. November 19 – COP19 Gender Day

iv. 2016 – COP22 – review progress towards goal of gender balance

v. Yearly – UNFCCC Secretariat will collect data and reports on UNFCCC gender balance

In conclusion, she observed that:

i. For the first time, the decision places the issue of gender and climate change as a standing item on the agenda of COPs

ii. Continued discussions on how to advance gender decision at all levels

iii. Hence the need to identify best practices, gaps, opportunities and challenges in advancing the goal of gender balance and on how to promote gender-sensitive climate policy.

3.3 Status of the UNFCCC Process

Presentation by Eng. Omedi Jura, Climate Change Secretariat, Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural resources.

Eng. OmediNjuri discussed the UNFCCC and what it stood for. To enable the meeting to discuss from a common understanding he discussed, simply, the climate change problem and actions in response to the changed climate.

UNFCCC- The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; brings parties to an agreement on confronting climate change after realizing that it is a big threat to the world. The emission levels are measured based on Carbon Dioxide emissions, the commonest greenhouse gas.

Many effects are attributed to the emissions increase trends globally (Global warming is a reality all over the world).

To mitigate climate change you need to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. This in the long run can lower the impacts due to climate change.

You can adapt to climate change as well, this helps you cope with the situation.

The worst climate induced disaster in Kenya has been drought. It affects Kenya and its neighboring countries and it also causes, as a result, the influx of refugees to Kenya. It was in 2010 that we had a bad drought, although the worst drought had been in 2009. The frequencies of droughts have increased. The 2009 drought was not as impactful as the 2010 drought in Kenya as there was preparedness since the warnings had come earlier for the 2009 drought.

Water is very central in climate change.

The issue regarding gender and women is central.

The conference of parties is held every year. Before the COPs, there are preparation meetings including the meetings of the various bodies- the advisory body on scientific issues, and the one on implementation (SBI and SBSTA- the subsidiary body meetings). Every COP comes up with their set of resolutions- Copenhagen Accord (COP15), Cancun agreement (16), Durban platform for enhanced action (COP17) .

Decisions are made based on submissions from stakeholders, as in the IEWM, CCNKenya, PACJA, FMNET, organized meeting on gender.

Africa is in the G77 and China negotiating block. Stakeholders submissions are made for the Country position, which feeds to the African group meeting to come up with an African position; followed by the Intercessional meetings where continent’s position feed to the negotiating block position.

The ‘Catahinna’ Dialogue is becoming very common as it involves both high polluters and the non-annex 1 countries.

CSOs also have their bodies during COPs to enforce and advocate for their positions.

There is accreditation process, through the Ministry of Environment, water and natural resources.

COP15 was the most attended COP by Kenyans and other parties. Doha had very few people/participants.

What happens before the COP is key to your success in any of the COPs as most decisions are prepared then.

There is absolute importance in engaging the lead ministries in any of our work to enable us find entry to the relevant avenues and opportunities to operate.

Questions and Answers:

? Kenyan Position paper development: The last country position paper (COP18) is available for us. There was an interactive process in coming up with the position paper.

? Kenya County/grassroots women participation arrangements and information dissemination: There is a national climate change action plan available on www.kccap.info. The counties were put in regions during the coming up with the climate change action plan. The national adaptation plan is being put in place for us to be able to have the plan implemented in adaptation.

? Do we have views collection on issues of climate change: Kenya is rated among the countries that have truly mainstreamed gender issues? The constitution supports this. It is important to have quality women to take advantage of this.

? What is the COP19 plan for CSOs to feed in: The road to COP19 is still not clear as we settle down after the general elections. There should be a roadmap coming up soon. The secretariat is keeping in touch with stakeholders and having them coordinated on matters of climate change.

3.4 Outcome of the Addis Ababa workshop on the African Gender Position

Presentation by Samson Ogallah, Program Manager, Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, PACJA.

MrOgallah presented the proposed African recommendations to UNFCCC, based on the COMESA Africa meeting, for submission by 2nd September, 2013.

The Doha Miracle, he said, was the time during COP18 when gender issues were clearly outlined and agreed upon. They would attend as delegations as well as key negotiators.

Gender issues are region specific. For Africa to speak as one block, then we need to integrate the key gender issues in each of those regions.

The basis is Common but Differentiated responsibility and Respective Capacities principle in Climate change.

There is the EAC Climate Change Policy as well as the National Climate Change Action plan.

It is important to give the ‘gender lens” context so that when looking at the climate change impacts and issues attention, e.g policy processes.

(See details in the presentation).

Further, he noted was:

? Women are better in indigenous knowledge.

? We need to give cognizance to women participation.

? Gender disaggregated data is lacking.

? The Chief Negotiator in Kenya is a lady- Fatuma Mohammed- Esther Magambo from Ministry of Agriculture, DrOmambia.

? ‘If you are not informed, you will be deformed’ he observed.

Samson Ogallah, Program Manager of PACJA, giving an overview of the Addis Ababa workshop on African Gender Position.

3.5Views and Options for advancing Gender Decision: Group Work and reports

Discussion by Hulda, National Gender Commission.

The groups addressed themselves to the discussion questions and came up with the following, summarized group responses.

Q1: What challenges are likely to be encountered in efforts to realize gender balance or that can prevent realization of this decision at the national level.

i. Representation;

-Lack of expertise, women being underrepresented.

-African signatories are mostly ministers and mostly men have big percentage women representation in civil society- Kenya

-Having a gender responsive budget it helps mostly women to participate in this processes- women presentation and not representation.

-lack of access to information and network, women doesn’t know these opportunities exist.

-triple roles for women make them have less time to network.

-Lack of implementation of laws and policies of gender (there’s a gender in climate change strategy that needs to be implemented).

-Lack of framework for selecting who represent Kenya at national and international level

ii. Capacity

-Gender responsive capacity building programme for negotiators

-Equal inclusion of women and men in the process of participation

-Inadequate expertise for gender mainstreaming in climate change

3. Other actors needed

i. Inclusion of the private sector

ii. Holders of indigenous knowledge

iii. Research and scientific institutions

iv. Religious institutions

v. Media inclusiveness (local)

vi. Development partners-HBF, World bank, ACT

Representation:

Traditional beliefs and customs/ patriarchy (conflict)

Low understanding of gender issues

Inadequacy in resource allocation

Lack of capacity

Commercialization of the activities

Opportunity:

Women engaging in different levels

Capacity

New system of government

Lack of consistency

Resources inadequacy

Information flow

Undermining diversity and discrimination

Opportunities:

Knowledge management

Resource allocation

Recommendations

• Country level

i. Budgetary allocation with gender sensitivity.

ii. Hold post conventions activities.

iii. Gender policy on climate change.

iv. Analysis of the activities engaged.

v. Information dissemination and sharing.

vi. Collect sex disaggregated data.

vii. Develop a gender entrenchment strategy into climate change.

viii. Capacity building prior the conventions (national, regional and international).

• UNFCCC level

i. Budgetary allocation with gender sensitivity (special reference)

ii. Formulate a gender policy

iii. Enforcing implementation of gender considerations in party nations

iv. Activities to showcase gender implementation in CC

v. Conduct analysis and influence participation

vi. Sanctioning of countries that don’t conform

vii. Promote gender inclusion in other working groups

viii. Gender watch secretariat

ix. Targets and time specifications that are gender sensitive -negotiators from different countries should be given some level of training on gender issues

x. -Promoting gender balance and increasing participation on the COPs and pre-cop meetings like intercessional meetings

xi. -Build appreciation of gender within UNFCC and process and ensure everyone participating on international meetings undergoes full training on gender-provide training

xii. -Making people appreciate the effects of climate change on women and highlighting the best practices

xiii. Have gender research to have factual evidence based on gender representation framework

4.0WORKSHOP RECOMMENDATIONS AND WAY FORWARD

A brief presentation by Joseph Ngondi

4.1 Recommendations

In view of the work already done by the gender and Climate Change Working group to feed to the Addis Ababa meeting, supported by COMESA, and the recommendations made during the Addis CSOs meeting, the meeting made the following recommendations:

1) Strategies for Climate Change interventions, at all levels, must take cognizance of the different impacts of climate change between men and women. The fact that women are impacted more severely than men by climate change needs to be acknowledged in all planning and during implementation of climate response initiatives at all levels.

2) Actors must adopt an affirmative action (either 50/50 or whatever the parties may agree but should be increased progressively to 50% if the initial target is less) that will be applied while appointing facilitators and chairs of formal and informal negotiating committees and other working groups and leadership of various bodies.

3) Ensure that women representatives should be participating effectively in the delegation as well as lead negotiators to include gender experts so that they are able to contribute effectively to the advancement of gender issues and gender representation.

4) There needs to be gender sensitive budgeting at county and national levels in Kenya.

5) There need to be a domestication of the gender discussions and strategies, as gender issues are region specific.

6) Notwithstanding that gender is about men and women, there need to be a targeted effort to build the capacity of women to be effective in the UNFCCC processes. This will include the purposeful mobilization and sensitization of women on climate change at all levels.

7) Women must have full voting rights in the various bodies, at national level (e.g. in Kenyan senate).

8) There was need to come up with a gender specific website to enhance communication and information sharing in Kenya.

4.2 Way Forward

The following way forward was agreed upon.

i. Share the report and the recommendations from the African meeting (organized by COMESA in Addis Ababa), on the Africa Gender recommendations to UNFCCC.

ii. There will be a meeting with the MEWNR, to formerly present the Kenyan CSOs recommendations,

iii. The report of the discussion proceedings was to be shared.

iv. Connect with the process that was initiated to input to the African CSOs position (Addis Ababa recommendations) on gender balance for the UNFCCC.

v. To closely work with the line Ministry and the commission to ensure sustained gender considerations at all levels in Kenya.

Mr Joseph Ngondi outlining the next steps after the roundtable meeting.

5.0 CONCLUSION

After thanking all the stakeholders for finding time to make contributions to the noble agenda on gender participation and equity in the UNFCCC and at national level, the Coordinator of CCNKenya, Mr Joseph Ngondi invited the IEWM to give the closing remarks. The CEO of IEWM, Annabel Waititu, thanked all participants and welcomed them for further interactions to enable gender issues to be well mainstreamed in policies and in organizations.

6.0 ANNEXES

Annexure 1: Past statistics on women’s participation as documented by WEDO

a) Participation of women in UNFCCC bodies and as Party delegates which overall has remained low.

b) Giving recommendations that enable a gender balance on delegations.

c) Increasing the capacity and knowledge of delegations. There is a need to initiate some trainings/capacity building on gender mainstreaming in climate change for all UNFCCC negotiators trained on gender so that they can effectively contribute, and defend gender decisions.

 

ANNEX 4

Key recommendations from Addis

1. The meeting made the following recommendations:

(i) The contribution of women to the use and management of natural resources at national, regional and international levels, should be fully acknowledged.

(ii) Women’s rights in climate change mitigation and adaptation, including their rights to information, knowledge, skills, resources and participation in decision-making should be guaranteed.

(iii) Women’s full participation and contribution to decision-making and leadership in climate-change processes and actions, including adaptation and mitigation actions should be promoted.

(iv) Awareness and understanding on adaptation issues and concerns at the global, national, and most importantly, at the local levels, among the poor and vulnerable should be increased.

(v) Timely information and adequate services and resources to women and vulnerable communities to enable them make timely decisions and take appropriate actions, including taking effective adaptation measures should be provided.

(vi) Women’s experiences, knowledge and coping capacities in adaptation policies should be strengthened. Women’s needs should also be considered in livelihood adaptation strategies. This should include the provision of training to women’s organizations, networks and support groups, as well as opportunities to share experiences;

(vii) The use of gender analysis to understand the different roles and responsibilities of women and men in natural resource use and management, in order to make interventions equally relevant for women and men should be conducted.

(viii) Programmes for the empowerment of women to enable them acquire, invest in and deploy technologies that contribute to mitigation and adaptation to climate change, as well as to enable them effectively mobilize for action should be promoted.

(ix) Binding commitments from developed country parties to the UNFCCC to mitigate GHG emissions that would be detrimental to the climate system and increase the burden on the poor and vulnerable should be solicited and secured;

(x) Actions of parties to the UNFCCC in reducing the vulnerability of the poor to climate change impacts should be transparent and parties should also be accountable to their constituents.

(xi) Greater collaboration between civil society and state agencies in Africa on climate change should be strengthened.

(xii) Engagement of more gender experts needed, adequate resources should be guaranteed, and use of local expertise is critical and should be promoted.

(xiii) Promote Africa to be a source of leadership for deepening understanding and addressing gender issues in climate change for sustainable development

Summary of Next steps from Addis Ababa meeting:

• Hold Consultations on gender and climate change with the African Group of Negotiators (AGN) (COMESA, EAC,SADC,ECA,IGAD,REFACOF)

• Identify and promote a Gender and Climate Change Champion (COMESA, ABANTU, IGAD)

• Undertake baseline study on gender and climate change (COMESA, REFACOF, EAC, SADC, IGAD, ABANTU, ASARECA, FAO)

• Support community and livelihood initiatives on gender and climate change resilience (COMESA, EAC, SADC, IGAD, REFACOF, FAO, ABANTU)

• Coordinate networking and coalition building efforts on gender and climate change (WEDO,GGCA,IGAD,COMESA, ABANTU/ PACJA)

• Develop relevant tools and methodologies to facilitate the development of gender and climate change policies (ECA, REFACOF, WEDO, ABANTU, FAO, COMESA, IGAD, EAC, SADC)

• Develop a framework for education, training and awareness (REFACOF,ECA/ACPC)

• Develop a framework for capacity building (ECA,GGCA).

Actions as proposed during the Addis Ababa meeting.

• Engage with Policy Makers, Parliamentarians, Civil Societies, Community leaders, traditional Authorities, Academia, private sectors and other actors on Gender and Climate Change

• Provide Support to countries to develop Gender and Climate Change policies, strategies and plan of action

• Advocacy and lobbying on gender and climate change

• Promote Education, Training and Awareness on gender and climate change

• Provide capacity building to countries particularly to women on climate change issues on gender and Climate Change

• Promote and support community and livelihood initiatives on gender and climate change resilience

• Documentation of best practices

• Support and strengthen knowledge management, information dissemination and networks on Gender and Climate change

• Promote and support research on Gender and Climate change